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Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer which occurs in plasma cells. It is also known as Kahler’s disease. Plasma cells are the cells which produce antibodies that recognize and attack germ cells. In case of Multiple myeloma cancer the plasma cells become cancerous they rather produce abnormal proteins. These abnormal proteins can cause complications. Multiple myeloma is one of the rare occurring cancer. It is found that approx 1 lakh multiple cases are reported in India per year. Treatment is not always necessary until one find the signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma.

Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma

  • Bone pain, especially in chest area
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Mental fogginess
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections
  • Weight loss
  • Numbness in legs
  • Excessive thirst

Some Multiple Myeloma features

  1. Low blood counts: The overgrowth of cancerous plasma cells in bone marrow can reduce the growth of normal blood cells. It can cause anemia.
  2. Bone and calcium problems: Myeloma cells interfere with the bone cells and make the bones dissolve.
  3. Infection: Since the plasma cells protect the body from germ cells, cancerous plasma cells can not protect the body. So body can get infection easily

Detection method of Multiple myeloma

There are multiple types of detection method for multiple myeloma’

Lab Test

  • Blood count test
  • Blood chemistry test
  • Urine tests
  • Quantitative immunoglobulins
  • Electrophoresis
  • Serum free light chains
  • Beta-2 microglobulin

Biopsies

  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy
  • Core needle biopsy

Imaging tests

  • Bone x-rays
  • CT Scan
  • MRI Scan
  • PET Scans
  • Echocardiogram etc

Risk Factors of Multiple Myeloma

Although this disease is very rare disease but, chances of having multiple myeloma is high in case:

  • You’re a male
  • Your age is more than 65 years
  • African American
  • In case of obesity or overweight
  • You have been exposed to carcinogenic particles
  • High contact with chemicals used in rubber manufacturing, woodworking etc.
References:
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